56 European cities by price: Europe Backpacker Index for 2015

London View Eye Big BenAs you’ll see below in the 5th annual version of the Europe Backpacker Index, the price of traveling around the continent varies massively depending on where you go. We’ve added 5 new cities for the 2015 installment, so now the list covers virtually every corner of Europe.

The major changes this year had to do with exchange rates. Every currency in Europe fell against the US Dollar, with some plunging far more than others. The Euro itself lost 15% against the USD, while the Norwegian Krone dropped about 20% (along with falling oil prices). If you are holding US money, Europe is now cheaper than it has been in many years.

For the 2015 update we added Cesky Krumlov (Czech Republic), Split (Croatia), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Salzburg (Austria), and Bergen (Norway), all of which are well worth a visit.

Are you a hotel person rather than a hostel person?

If your budget is higher than that of a backpacker you should check out our:
>>>Europe 3-Star Traveler Index for 2014

The above list shows some significant shifts for some cities on the list below, indicating that certain destinations are better bargains than others, depending on your style of travel.

How the Backpacker Index works

Prices for most things (hostels, transportation, attractions) are fixed and certain, but prices for a “budget lunch” or a pint of beer can vary depending on where you go. Still, our estimates are based on a lot of research, and should be very close if not right on.

Costs for each city

  • One night in the cheapest bunk at the least expensive hostel with a good location and good reviews
  • Two public transportation rides per day
  • One paid/famous attraction per day (Every city is loaded with free things to do for budget-conscious travelers, but here we take the average cost of a major attraction in each city for each day.)
  • Three “budget” meals per day (We took our minimum meal price and added 20% to make it more realistic for a longer trip).
  • Three cheap, local beers (or wine) each day as an “entertainment fund.” Non-drinkers might have dessert and coffee or attend a local music performance instead, so this is a general benchmark that should be proportional for each city.

Interactive map at the bottom of this list

As of summer 2014, we’ve finally added an interactive map that shows the Backpacker Index price for each city as you roll over it with your cursor. You can click on the city names to see all the details about each city as well.

Additional backpacker resources

European Backpacker Index for 2015

From cheapest to most expensive

1 – Kiev, Ukraine (cheapest)

Kiev has always been cheap (and very remote) compared to the rest of Europe, but the conflict and uncertainty that Ukraine has gone through in 2014 caused its currency to plunge and inflation to skyrocket. It’s hard to say what prices may be at any given moment in 2015, but at least it should continue to be cheap for outsiders.

  • Currency: Ukraine Hryvnia
  • Cheap/good hostel: Magic Bus Kiev – 65.00/night
  • Transportation: 4.00
  • Meals: 192.00
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 96.00
  • Attractions: 10.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: UHR385.00 = US$24.32/day

>>>Kiev prices and weather

2 – Bucharest, Romania

Definitely not Romania’s most charming town, Bucharest’s Old Town gets decent reviews but the rest of the city struggles to appeal to tourists. Fortunately, those that make the effort to come will at least be rewarded with low prices all around, which certainly help make up for the other frustrations of visiting. And that huge parliament building is worth a look. Hostels seem to be getting cheaper lately, so it’s even more appealing for the backpacker set.

  • Currency: Romanian leu
  • Cheap/good hostel: Funky Chicken Hostel = 15.64/night
  • Transportation: 4.00
  • Meals: 43.20
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 12.00
  • Attractions: 12.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: RON99.70 – US$26.38/day

>>>Bucharest prices and weather

3 – Sofia, Bulgaria

Sofia remains a fantastic bargain among European capitals, with a very pleasant city center that is quite welcoming of foreign tourists. Prices of nearly everything are very cheap, except for inbound flights from other major cities. For this reason, Sofia is out of the way for anyone who isn’t doing an extensive tour of the region.

  • Currency: Bulgaria Leva
  • Cheap/good hostel: Hostel Mostel – 13.70 (includes breakfast)
  • Transportation: 2.00
  • Meals: 16.80
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 7.50
  • Attractions: 4.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: BGN44.72 = US$27.27/day

>>>Sofia prices and weather

4 – Krakow, Poland

Krakow continues as Europe’s best travel bargain. The low prices have drawn in larger numbers of Europeans for weekend breaks, and there are many great and cheap hostels, bars, and restaurants to keep prices low while you are enjoying the beautiful old city and the local culture. Put this one on your list before demand forces prices up like in Prague and Budapest.

  • Currency: Polish Zlotych
  • Cheap/good hostel: Benedict Hostel – 30.00/night
  • Transportation: 5.60
  • Meals: 24.00
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 18.00
  • Attractions: 15.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: PLN100.60 = US$27.79/day

>>>Krakow prices and weather

5 – Belgrade, Serbia

Belgrade is one of the Balkan cities that had years of trouble in the 1990s and still struggles a bit to attract tourism. You won’t find an abundance of checklist attractions here, but you will find a lively and interesting urban center with good nightlife and appealing prices.

  • Currency: Serbian Dinar (prices below are in euros)
  • Cheap/good hostel: City Break Hostel – 4.52/night
  • Transportation: 1.68
  • Meals: 9.60
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 4.50
  • Attractions: 3.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €25.08 = US$29.86/day

>>>Belgrade prices and weather

6 – Warsaw, Poland

While Krakow gets most of the raves in Poland, the capital city also has plenty to brag about in addition to very reasonable prices. The Old Town center was famously rebuilt after WWII to resemble its former self, and it’s as charming as it is impressive. Warsaw is a bit out of the way for most travelers, but it’s very worthwhile for those touring the area.

  • Currency: Polish Zlotych
  • Cheap/good hostel: Hoza Hostel – 35.00/night
  • Transportation: 6.80
  • Meals: 39.60
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 21.00
  • Attractions: 18.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: PLN112.40 = US$31.05/day

>>>Warsaw prices and weather

7 – Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Another Balkan-area city whose name conjures up images of its past troubles, Sarajevo is a destination that is struggling to attract tourists. The location deep into the mountains is remote, but it’s also gorgeous once you arrive. The Muslim Old Town next to the modern center is very interesting and incredibly welcoming. This one is a hidden gem, partly because it’s so hard to reach.

  • Currency: Converted Mark (fixed, so prices below are in euros)
  • Cheap/good hostel: Hostel Ljubicica – 5.56/night
  • Transportation: 3.60
  • Meals: 9.60
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 3.75
  • Attractions: 4.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €26.22 = US$31.21/day

>>>Sarajevo prices and weather

8 – Budapest, Hungary

Another excellent travel bargain, Budapest is all-around cheap as long as you steer clear of the most touristy places along the river. The castles and cathedrals are enough, but here you also get thermal spas that are cheap enough even for the backpacking set. Hostels, in particular, are great value, but you have to get a bit out of the center to find inexpensive hotels.

  • Currency: Hungary Forint
  • Cheap/good hostel: Lowcostel Hostels – 2045/night
  • Transportation: 700
  • Meals: 3120
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 1050
  • Attractions: 1500
  • Daily Backpacker Index: HUF8,370 = US$31.23/day

>>>Budapest prices and weather

9 – Český Krumlov, Czech Republic

CeskyKrumlovThe second most popular tourist town in the Czech Republic is another jewel not to be missed if you are nearby. Framed by a gorgeous serpentine river, the historic Old Town feels perfectly preserved yet not overly touristy. Best of all, Český Krumlov seems shockingly cheap when you are there, with hotels, food, and drinks at very low prices even in the heart of town.

  • Currency: Czech krona
  • Cheap/good hostel: Hostel Merlin – 265/night
  • Transportation: 48
  • Meals: 288
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 90
  • Attractions: 100
  • Daily Backpacker Index: CZK791 = US$34.01/day

>>>Český Krumlov prices and weather

10 – Saint Petersburg, Russia

Not unlike Kiev, the Russian currency plunged late in 2014 and inflation took off. Far more tourist-friendly than Moscow, Saint Petersburg is also cheaper and arguably more interesting. Most things are very affordable, and the city would seem even cheaper if its incredible Hermitage Museum/Winter Palace didn’t (justifiably) cost so much. Hotels and tourist restaurants aren’t so cheap, however. Prices here could drift up or down as 2015 goes on.

  • Currency: Russian ruble
  • Cheap/good hostel: Mozaika Hostel – 370/night
  • Transportation: 62
  • Meals: 936
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 360
  • Attractions: 400
  • Daily Backpacker Index: RUB2,158 = US$34.27/day

>>>Saint Petersburg prices and weather

11 – Riga, Latvia

It’s surprising to see a city so far north also so high on the cheap-cities list, but it turns out that Riga is quite a bargain for the backpacking set. Hostel beds in particular are very affordable, and so is pretty much everything else. Riga’s main problem is that it’s a bit out of the way for those not on an extensive tour. Even for a weekend break, Riga is worth a look, especially for the nightlife crowd.

  • Currency: Euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Central Hostel – 5.30/night
  • Transportation: 2.40
  • Meals: 12.00
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 6.00
  • Attractions: 5.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €30.40 = US$36.19/day

>>>Riga prices and weather

12 – Zagreb, Croatia

The beach resort towns of Croatia are the main attraction, so Zagreb, which is well inland, tends to be only a short stop for most. Still fairly cheap by European standards, and especially compared to Italy next door, Zagreb is a bargain and a worthwhile pause on the way to one of the beach towns or nearby Plitvice National Park.

  • Currency: Croatian kuna
  • Cheap/good hostel: Ravnice Youth Hostel – 60/night
  • Transportation: 20
  • Meals: 84
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 36
  • Attractions: 30
  • Daily Backpacker Index: HRK233.40 = US$36.19/day

>>>Zagreb prices and weather

13 – Vilnius, Lithuania

VilniusUnlike nearby Riga and Tallinn, the city of Vilnius does not have a cruise port and it’s well inland. For this reason it feels far less touristy than the other two, and the Old Town is gorgeous. This is another Baltic capital that is surprisingly cheap in many ways, so it’s a worthwhile stop between Latvia and Poland. The (hard to find) Frank Zappa statue is one of the more famous quirky attractions here.

  • Currency: Euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Downtown Forest Hostel & Camping – 32.73/night
  • Transportation: 2.00
  • Meals: 13.20
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 6.00
  • Attractions: 3.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €31.20 = US$37.14/day

>>>Vilnius prices and weather

14 – Bratislava, Slovakia

You’d think that practically being walking distance from Vienna would make Bratislava a very popular stop for those on a Europe tour, but so far it’s still mostly forgotten. It’s cheaper than Prague and much cheaper than Vienna, so perhaps it will start catching on more in the coming years. A lack of famous attractions doesn’t help, though the pleasant and historic town center is worth a day or two.

  • Currency: Euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Wild Elephants Hostel – 12/night
  • Transportation: 1.40
  • Meals: 12.00
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 6.00
  • Attractions: 5.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €34.40 = US$40.95/day

>>>Bratislava prices and weather

15 – Istanbul, Turkey

The classic east-meets-west city had been creeping up in price, but the decline of the Turkish Lira lately has made it a bargain again. There’s no shortage of markets, mosques, and attractions for even a longer stay, and everywhere else in Turkey is cheaper. Accommodation is more expensive than you might expect. Check our list of recommended cheap Istanbul hotels for bargains in all price ranges.

  • Currency: Turkish lira
  • Cheap/good hostel: Aga Hamam Hostel – 20.36/night
  • Transportation: 4.00
  • Meals: 24.00
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 21.00
  • Attractions: 25.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: TRY97.62 = US$42.08/day

>>>Istanbul prices and weather

16 – Split, Croatia

SplitSplit is partly known for being the transportation hub along the Croatian coast, and the gateway to many nearby islands. But the Old City here is even older than Dubrovnik’s and in many ways it’s just as impressive. Prices here are far cheaper than those in Dubrovnik, so it’s a much better stop for most people, as it also feels far less touristy than the walled city to its south.

  • Currency: Croatian kuna
  • Cheap/good hostel: Hostel Sunseekers – 81/night
  • Transportation: 18
  • Meals: 100.80
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 42
  • Attractions: 30
  • Daily Backpacker Index: 271.80 = US$42.14/day

>>>Split prices and weather

17 – Prague, Czech Republic

In the 1990s Prague was always used as an example of a city that is incredibly cheap yet still beautiful and historic, but that sort of chit-chat triggered the masses to follow. Still, in spite of high-ish hotel prices, Prague is still quite cheap for those willing to stay in hostels and scout for bargain food and drinks. Plus, it’s still gorgeous, if crowded. Choose from our recommended hotels in Prague list for excellent values at top-rated hotels.

  • Currency: Czech krona
  • Cheap/good hostel: Czech Inn – 297/night
  • Transportation: 48
  • Meals: 372
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 105
  • Attractions: 250
  • Daily Backpacker Index: CZK1,045 = US$44.93/day

>>>Prague prices and weather

18 – Ljubljana, Slovenia

LjubljanaSlovenia is mostly known for its natural sights such as Lake Bled or the Karst plateaus, but its capital is definitely worth a look as well. Ljubljana is a charming and laid-back city with a peaceful Old Town and very appealing prices for visitors. This is the kind of place you’ll think about moving to when you see it, so it’s a very nice place to chill out for a few days on longer trips around Europe.

  • Currency: Euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Hostel 24 – 9/night
  • Transportation: 2.40
  • Meals: 16.20
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 6
  • Attractions: 5
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €38.60 = US$45.95/day

>>>Ljubljana prices and weather

19 – Tenerife, Spain

The Canary Islands (off the northwest coast of Africa) are a popular warm-weather retreat for many Europeans all year, and Tenerife is the most popular island with English speakers. Prices tend to be similar to mainland Spain, which makes it a relative bargain for most Europeans who are just a cheap flight away. Not many cultural attractions to be found, so it’s mainly a place to relax.

  • Currency: Euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Hostel Tenerife – 13/night
  • Transportation: 2.70
  • Meals: 14.40
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 7.50
  • Attractions: 3.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €40.60 = US$48.33/day

>>>Tenerife prices and weather

20 – Moscow, Russia

Certainly one of the world’s most important cities, Moscow continues also to be frustrating for many travelers, with relatively few hostels and traveler-friendly budget restaurants. The currency collapse has brought prices down, although inflation will eventually bring them back up again. Still, if you can get through the paperwork and find a cheap flight, it’s a fairly cheap place for backpacker-types. Tourist hotels and restaurants can be quite expensive, so even though it’s somewhat cheap for those willing to search for local deals, Moscow can be a drain for 3-star and above travelers.

  • Currency: Russian ruble
  • Cheap/good hostel: TNT Hostel 500/night
  • Transportation: 80
  • Meals: 1,128
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 750
  • Attractions: 350
  • Daily Backpacker Index: RUB3,050 = US$48.44/day

>>>Moscow prices and weather

21 – Tallinn, Estonia

Tallinn is cheap by most European standards, but it’s the most expensive city in the Baltic area because it’s a popular getaway for the Finns just a 2-hour ferry ride away. Frequent ferries from Helsinki are loaded with the party crowd and those looking to stock up on bulk alcohol for the return trip. Still, it’s a fun place with a lovely Old Town.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: The Monk’s Bunk – 9.00/night
  • Transportation: 2.00
  • Meals: 14.40/li>
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 9.00
  • Attractions: 5.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €41.40 = US$49.29/day

>>>Tallinn prices and weather

22 – Lisbon, Portugal

Its out-of-the-way location seems to keep tourism well below the levels that the city otherwise deserves, but those who go to the trouble to reach Lisbon will find an extremely handsome and charming city that is a great bargain as well. The city is particularly known for excellent and cheap hostels that are always in a race to outdo each other, with visitors being the ultimate winners. Lisbon is one of those destinations that many people avoid for a long time, and then after they visit they vow to return again and again.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Equity Point Lisboa – 7.90/night
  • Transportation: 2.80
  • Meals: 16.80
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 9.00
  • Attractions: 6.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €42.90 = US$51.07/day

>>>Lisbon prices and weather

23 – Santorini, Greece

SantoriniArguably Greece’s most popular holiday island, Santorini is here mainly as a placeholder for all of them. There are a few sights and cultural attractions but most people (Europeans) come to just relax in the sun during the day and drink into the night. If you stay in hostels or basic hotels and eat in places without sea views, these Greek islands all tend to be quite affordable.

  • Currency: Euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Anny Studios Perissa Beach – 11/night
  • Transportation: 3.20
  • Meals: 15.60
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 10.50
  • Attractions: 3.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €43.30 = US$51.55/day

>>>Santorini prices and weather

24 – Valletta, Malta

VallettaNearly hidden just a bit south of Sicily in the Mediterannean, Malta is a small island group with a pleasant climate and an improving tourist infrastructure. The tiny capital city of Valletta is a UNESCO World Heritage site on its own, and the rest of the islands offer a nice mix of historical sites and pleasant beaches. Nearly everyone speaks English, so it continues to be popular with Brits.

  • Currency: Euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Hostel Malti – 12/night
  • Transportation: 4.40
  • Meals: 14.40
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 7.50
  • Attractions: 6.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €44.30 = US$52.74/day

>>>Valletta prices and weather

25 – Athens, Greece

The Greek capital was once one of Europe’s great bargain cities, and it may be again depending on the currency situation. The infrastructure created for the Olympics has actually turned Athens into a modern and easy-to-visit place, and the Acropolis and other attractions continue to amaze, so it still seems like a reasonable deal for the moment and may get even cheaper. Political instability has kept some people away, which has helped keep hotel and hostel prices affordable. If Greece finally votes itself out of the Euro, this place should become a bargain again (after a bit of uncertainty).

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Pagration Hostel – 8/night
  • Transportation: 2.40
  • Meals: 19.20
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 7.50
  • Attractions: 8.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €47.10 = US$56.07/day

>>>Athens prices and weather

26 – Naples, Italy

Italy’s cheapest major city is a very good bargain for those willing to venture south of Rome. Affordable hostels and casual dining choices keep it cheaper than cities to the north, and it has a different atmosphere as well. Naples has almost no green space and a reputation for petty crime, which keeps many visitors away. If you want to see Naples on a day trip and also visit the Amalfi Coast, Pompeii, and the island of Capri, you are better off staying in the lovely town of Sorrento, which is only a bit more expensive.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Welcome Inn – 12/night
  • Transportation: 2.60
  • Meals: 15.60
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 6.00
  • Attractions: 9.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €47.20 = US$56.19/day

>>>Naples prices and weather

27 – Madrid, Spain

This classic European city definitely feels like a bargain compared to capitals to the north. There is great competition among its many hostels, and even private rooms in the city center are often cheap. Check out our cheap Madrid hotels list for well located and dependable bargains. Another money saver is the tapas culture, with cheap eats and cheap glasses of beer or wine as part of the nightly ritual.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Mad Hostel – 11.00/night
  • Transportation: 3.00
  • Meals: 19.20
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 6.00
  • Attractions: 10.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €49.78 = US$59.26/day

>>>Madrid prices and weather

28 – Barcelona, Spain

Barcelona and Madrid are very different in many important ways, but they are very similar in general prices so there’s no reason not to visit both if you can. And this is another city where hostels tend to get expensive and crowded during summer, but are quite cheap for most of the rest of the year. See our cheap and recommended Barcelona hotels list for some options that are well located and highly rated.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Cool Hostel – 8.90/night
  • Transportation: 4.00
  • Meals: 19.20
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 9.00
  • Attractions: 11.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €51.20 = US$60.95/day

>>>Barcelona prices and weather

29 – Berlin, Germany

Berlin is officially booming, and is now one of Europe’s most-visited destinations. This city has endless things to see and do, along with an arts and entertainment scene that rivals anywhere in Europe. The museums and attractions are priced reasonably, and can be efficiently bundled with a Berlin Card. All that, plus the competition among its many hostels keeps things pleasantly cheap. Put it on your list and schedule a trip before things change much. See our recommended hotels in Berlin list for some very good rates at highly rated and well located hotels.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Heart of Gold Hostel – 12.00/night
  • Transportation: 5.40
  • Meals: 16.80
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 9.00
  • Attractions: 10.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €52.20 = US$62.14/day

>>>Berlin prices and weather

30 – Bruges, Belgium

Bruges is a very good bargain for the backpacking set due to reasonably priced hostels and affordable attractions. In high season (summer) prices go up a bit, but still Bruges is a fine choice to chill out for a few days or more, even though you can see the main sights in less time.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Snuffel Backpacker Hostel – 16/night
  • Transportation: 2.60
  • Meals: 20.40
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 10.50
  • Attractions: 6.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €55.50 = US$66.07/day

>>>Bruges prices and weather

31 – Nice, France

As the largest city on the Côte d’Azur, Nice actually has a decent infrastructure for budget tourists, though things can get pretty crowded in summer and prices do shoot up. This is a great base for exploring Monaco and Cannes with a short train journey, but even in the city itself there is plenty to do, and a pleasant beach if you don’t mind rocks where the sand should be.

Note: Drink prices here are for wine rather than beer, as it’s much cheaper and better as well.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Hostel Pastoral – 15/night
  • Transportation: 3.00
  • Meals: 19.20
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 9.00
  • Attractions: 7.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €58.20 = US$69.29

>>>Nice prices and weather

32 – Munich, Germany

MunichGermany’s most pleasant city is only a bit more expensive than the others, so budget travelers can get by with few complications as long as they aren’t going during Oktoberfest (when hotel and hostel prices triple). Prices of hostels do shoot up a bit during summer, but overall it’s fairly easy to find bargains, and the city is so livable that it feels like good value.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Euro Youth Hostel – 14.50/night
  • Transportation: 5.20
  • Meals: 19.20
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 9.00
  • Attractions: 9.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €59.90 = US$71.31/day

>>>Munich prices and weather

33 – Florence, Italy

A highlight of so many Italy tours, Florence is cheaper than Rome and Venice in most regards. Hostel competition is fierce and quality is mostly quite good, so this is a good hang-out for weary backpackers. And the food is excellent, if not particularly cheap.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Hostel 7 Santi – 17/night
  • Transportation: 2.40
  • Meals: 18.00
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 9.00
  • Attractions: 11.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €55.90 = US$76.58/day

>>>Florence prices and weather

34 – Vienna, Austria

Being one of Europe’s grandest capitals, it’s only slightly surprising that Vienna comes out as a relatively expensive city. Its location between so many other tourist cities makes it an easy one to stop off in for a few days, and while food is a bit expensive, there are some good-value hostels in the city to help make up for it.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Wombats City Hostel – at The Naschmarkt – 11.00/night
  • Transportation: 4.40
  • Meals: 20.40
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 10.50
  • Attractions: 11.50
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €61.80 = US$73.57/day

>>>Vienna prices and weather

35 – Dublin, Ireland

For a city that was once considered cheap, Dublin still feels weirdly expensive, especially in light of the larger financial struggles. Fortunately there are some good deals on hostels these days, so hopefully other things (like €5+ for a pint of Guinness in even a dumpy bar!) will loosen up and make the city friendlier for backpackers and budget travelers. Speaking of Guinness, if you are going to do the Guinness Brewery and the popular Jameson Distillery tour, then the Dublin Pass is a great deal.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Generator Dublin – 9/night (including breakfast)
  • Transportation: 4.00
  • Meals: 19.20
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 15.00
  • Attractions: 10.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €62.20 = US$74.05/day

>>>Dublin prices and weather

36 – Ibiza, Spain

While it’s not really considered a backpacking destination, Ibiza is popular enough with budget travelers to include here. Hotels can be quite cheap, which makes up for a lack of hostels. Entrance to the main nightclubs in Ibiza will cost a fortune, as will drinks once inside, but if you are content to hang out on the beach then this island can be affordable. Note that the hotel price here is for April, and in summer it will be considerably more. If these rankings were for July, Ibiza would be way down this list, so it’s only really a bargain in the off season.

  • Currency: Euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Hostal Giramundo Ibiza – 18.00/night
  • Transportation: 2.60
  • Meals: 18.00
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 9.00
  • Attractions: 10.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €62.60 = US$74.52/day

>>>Ibiza prices and weather

37 – Reykjavik, Iceland

After its currency collapsed in 2008, Iceland cost about half what it did previously for foreigners, but prices have crept up again and it’s still pretty expensive. Reykjavik isn’t a particularly charming city, which is fine because the appeal of Iceland is the amazing scenery everywhere else. If you plan a trip to Iceland, don’t linger in the capital longer than you have to. The rest of the island is also fairly expensive, and stunning.

  • Currency: Iceland kronur
  • Cheap/good hostel: Bus Hostel Reykjavik – 2491/night
  • Transportation: 700
  • Meals: 2,520
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 2,400
  • Attractions: 1,500
  • Daily Backpacker Index: ISK9,777 = US$75.47/day

>>>Reykjavik prices and weather

38 – Luxembourg City, Luxembourg

This underrated and mostly forgotten city is definitely worth a stop if you are passing between Belgium and France. The location is stunning and the city’s history is interesting, plus the food and drink culture is what you would expect for this part of Europe, meaning there are a lot of great choices.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Luxembourg City Hostel – 25.00/night (including breakfast)
  • Transportation: 4.00
  • Meals: 19.80
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 10.50
  • Attractions: 5.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €64.30 = US$76.55/day

>>>Luxembourg City prices and weather

39 – Salzburg, Austria

SalzburgA classic tourist city, Salzburg is at the base of the Alps and it has one of the most impressive Old Towns anywhere in Europe. As the birthplace of Mozart, Salzburg is a key hub for classical concerts and festivals, but for non-Europeans it’s even more famous as the setting of the Sound of Music. The bus tours dedicated to that movie are more fun and far more scenic than you might expect.

  • Currency: Euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: YoHo international Youth Hostel – 19/night
  • Transportation: 4.80
  • Meals: 21.60
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 9
  • Attractions: 10
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €64.40 = US$76.67/day

>>>Salzburg prices and weather

40 – Hamburg, Germany

This somewhat remote city is largely forgotten by most North American visitors, known best as where the Beatles honed their chops, but Hamburg is a lovely and classy city that is worth a stop if you are in the area. Germans, in general, like good value, so there are plenty of good budget sleeping and eating options for the backpacker types. Hotel prices here are heavily influenced by trade fairs and business travelers, so it can be cheap one week and very expensive the next.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Superbude Hotel & Hostel St.Pauli – 15/night
  • Transportation: 3.00
  • Meals: 18.00
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 9.00
  • Attractions: 10.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €65.00 = US$77.38/day

>>>Hamburg prices and weather

41 – Dubrovnik, Croatia

Dubrovnik has one of the most amazing walled historic centers in the world, and it used to be considered a bargain compared to Italy. But now it’s so popular with tourists and cruise passengers that it feels more than a bit pricey. If you are on the fence about visiting here, you are better off going to Split, which is similar, much cheaper, and easier to reach.

  • Currency: Croatian kuna
  • Cheap/good hostel: GuestHouse Maria – 165/night
  • Transportation: 24
  • Meals: 136.80
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 90.00
  • Attractions: 90.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: HRK502.80 = US$77.95/day

>>>Dubrovnik prices and weather

42 – Milan, Italy

Milan’s success in finance and fashion have helped make it one of Europe’s most expensive cities to sleep in, although the hostels aren’t as outrageous, so overall expenses are similar to most other Italian cities. Since it’s on-the-way between so many other nearby cities, Milan is definitely worth a stop for a day or two if you can manage it, but don’t feel bad if you skip it.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Ostello Burigozzo 11 – 16/night
  • Transportation: 3.00
  • Meals: 18.00
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 10.50
  • Attractions: 10.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €65.50 = US$77.98/day

>>>Milan prices and weather

43 – Rome, Italy

Regardless of costs, Rome is one of those cities that you’ve just got to visit anyway, so fortunately it’s not as outrageously expensive as some lesser destinations a bit down the list. There are good budget options for most things, but hotels and hostels are more expensive than one might expect, and the main Rome attractions are justifiably expensive as well. Choose from our recommended Rome hostels and hotels for excellent bargains with great locations.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: The Yellow – 14.90/night
  • Transportation: 3.00
  • Meals: 19.20
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 9.00
  • Attractions: 12.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €67.60 = US$80.48/day

>>>Rome prices and weather

44 – Edinburgh, Scotland

While it’s certainly true that most things in Edinburgh are a bit cheaper than things in London, it’s still far from cheap for most budget travelers. Those who are satisfied with skipping the Edinburgh Castle and the Camera Obscura will find this city very reasonable, except during the Festival season. Speaking of that, check our Edinburgh cheap travel tips for the festival season, which can actually be helpful all year round.

  • Currency: British pound
  • Cheap/good hostel: High Street Hostel – 9.99/night
  • Transportation: 3.00
  • Meals: 15.60
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 9.00
  • Attractions: 12.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: £53.35 = US$80.83/day

>>>Edinburgh prices and weather

45 – Brussels, Belgium

For the budget traveler, Brussels can be a bit difficult since the infrastructure is built mostly for business travelers and government employees. There aren’t many hostel options, and cheap meals are a challenge in the city center area. Still, it’s worth a look for the main square alone if you are heading to or from Bruges, which is much cheaper and listed above.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Hostel Grand Place – 25/night
  • Transportation: 4.00
  • Meals: 21.60
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 12.00
  • Attractions: 8.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €71.60 = US$85.24/day

>>>Brussels prices and weather

46 – Paris, France

Similar to Rome, it’s just a good thing that Paris isn’t any more expensive than it is, because people are going to visit anyway. As long as you are willing to stay a bit outside the main tourist districts then Paris can be quite reasonable on the wallet, and the quality of food is exceptional nearly anywhere you go. The main attractions are actually fairly cheap compared to major sights in some other big cities, and you might save even more money with a Paris Pass. To get the best value have a look at our recommended Paris hostels and cheap hotels section.

Note: Drink prices here are for wine rather than beer, as it’s much cheaper and better as well.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Le Village Hostel & Budget Hotel – 19.84/night
  • Transportation: 3.40
  • Meals: 20.40
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 12.00
  • Attractions: 12.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €72.80 = US$86.67/day

>>>Paris prices and weather

47 – Interlaken, Switzerland

InterlakenThe big cities in Switzerland are awesomely expensive because everything is priced for business travelers and the like, so budget travelers are better off skipping them in favor of the small towns of Interlaken or Lucerne to get better views and lower prices. Interlaken itself feels a bit tired, so head straight up to Gimmelwald or one of the other mountain towns for the best experience.

  • Currency: Swiss Franc
  • Cheap/good hostel: Happy Inn Lodge – 24.42/night
  • Transportation: 0 (local transport is free for overnight guests)
  • Meals: 38.40
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 15.00
  • Attractions: 10.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: CHF89.60 = US$88.71/day

>>>Interlaken prices and weather

48 – Oslo, Norway

As oil prices collapsed in late 2014, the Norwegian currency did as well. Now this gorgeous country is still pricey but not outrageous like it was recently. Flights into Oslo can be quite cheap as well, although Bergen (below) is probably a better choice if you have to choose just one.

  • Currency: Norwegian kroner
  • Cheap/good hostel: Anker Apartment – 230/night
  • Transportation: 56
  • Meals: 228
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 120
  • Attractions: 50
  • Daily Backpacker Index: NOK689 = US$89.36/day

>>>Oslo prices and weather

49 – Copenhagen, Denmark

The Danish capital is of the famously expensive Scandinavian cities, but its currency has also eased so it’s a better bargain in 2015. Quality does tend to be quite high, and Copenhagen is arguably one of the prettiest cities in all of Europe, so the higher prices feel somewhat justified. Still, it’s a tough place for the backpacker crowd, especially for those who drink.

  • Currency: Danish kroner
  • Cheap/good hostel: Sleep in Heaven – 160/night
  • Transportation: 48
  • Meals: 168
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 90
  • Attractions: 80
  • Daily Backpacker Index: DKK 497 = US$91.87/day

>>>Copenhagen prices and weather

50 – Stockholm, Sweden

Backpackers who want to visit the homeland of most of their furniture have to go a long distance out of the way to reach Stockholm, and then face shocking prices once they arrive. This is another city where almost nothing is cheap no matter where you look. The long-promised ABBA Museum is now open and it’s predictably expensive as well.

  • Currency: Swedish kronor
  • Cheap/good hostel: Crafoord Place – 199/night
  • Transportation: 72
  • Meals: 216
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 120
  • Attractions: 130
  • Daily Backpacker Index: SEK739 = US$93.31/day

>>>Stockholm prices and weather

51 – Amsterdam, Netherlands

From a price standpoint, Amsterdam may be a victim of its own popularity. Even with scores of hostels throughout the city center, they are still able to get fairly high rates even during shoulder season. Pick from our recommended Amsterdam hostels and cheap hotels for great value and locations. The famous attractions are on the expensive side, though good deals are always available on food and drinks if you know where to look. Budget travelers will have to book a place way outside the center in order to find a decent deal, and unfortunately Amsterdam loses some of its charm if you have to commute in and out like that.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Flying Pig Uptown – 21.90/night
  • Transportation: 5.60
  • Meals: 15.60
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 12.00
  • Attractions: 15.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €80.10 = US$95.36/day

>>>Amsterdam prices and weather

52 – Helsinki, Finland

Helsinki, like Stockholm and Oslo above, has a sizzling economy, but along with it they have very high wages and taxes, and that makes things expensive for outsiders. Even hostels are quite expensive, and hotels are worse. As nice as it may be, if cities had prices reflecting their desirability, Helsinki would be much, much cheaper than it is.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: Eurohostel – 25/night
  • Transportation: 4.40
  • Meals: 22.80
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 18.00
  • Attractions: 7.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €80.60 = US$95.95/day

>>>Helsinki prices and weather

53 – Venice, Italy

No surprises to find Venice so far down the affordability list, but once again this is a city where it’s all easily justifiable, and fortunately you can see all the main sights in just two days and one night if you are tight on funds. Of course, most cheaper hotels are not even on the main island, but getting back and forth is cheap and easy. Check our cheap and recommended Venice hotels list for some great choices.

  • Currency: euro
  • Cheap/good hostel: San Geremia Rooms – 25/night
  • Transportation: 7.00
  • Meals: 26.40
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 10.50
  • Attractions: 11.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: €81.90 = US$97.50/day

>>>Venice prices and weather

54 – London, England

London is famously pricey, but it’s also a weird one for budget travelers since it actually has somewhat affordable hostels (at least outside of high season), and all the major museums are actually free. However, pretty much everything else feels outrageously expensive, particularly the other attractions like the Tower of London and the London Eye. Those wishing to save by bundling these top attractions should consider a London Pass. For cheap hotel and hostel options see our recommended London hostel and hotels page.

  • Currency: British pound
  • Cheap/good hostel: The Walrus Waterloo – 14/night (including breakfast)
  • Transportation: 5.60
  • Meals: 21.00
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 10.50
  • Attractions: 12.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: £69.70 = US$105.51/day

>>>London prices and weather

55 – Bergen, Norway

BergenEven with a lower Norwegian currency, Bergen is still very pricey compared to the rest of Europe. This is the gateway to the beautiful fjords of Norway, and the city itself is more interesting and easier to visit than Oslo. Actually, hotels here are very good quality and decent value. It’s the food and drinks that feel so overpriced, and the few hostels feel weirdly expensive as well.

  • Currency: Norwegian kroner
  • Cheap/good hostel: HI Montana Youth and Family Hostel – 276/night
  • Transportation: 62
  • Meals: 240
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 180
  • Attractions: 60
  • Daily Backpacker Index: NOK818 = US$106.10/day

>>>Bergen prices and weather

56 – Zurich, Switzerland

Certainly no surprise here, especially considering that Zurich also came out on top on our survey of world taxi prices. Switzerland is a rich country and Zurich is its very-rich main city, so the hotel and restaurant scenes are dominated by business travelers and those on expense accounts. It’s a nice enough place, but honestly, Bern is more interesting, and the highlights of the country are in the scenery rather than in the cities.

  • Currency: Swiss franc
  • Cheap/good hostel: Youth Hostel Zurich – 41/night
  • Transportation: 5.20
  • Meals: 37.20
  • Drinks/Entertainment: 21.00
  • Attractions: 17.00
  • Daily Backpacker Index: CHF125.40 = US$124.16/day

>>>Zurich prices and weather

Interactive map of European cities with Backpacker Index

Below you can see each of the 51 cities above on a map. Roll your mouse over each city to see its Backpacker Index price, converted into US dollars at today’s exchange rate.

How to use this information

As mentioned at the top, these prices are for a typical group of expenses for a backpacker, and you could even say these are “average prices” for each city, but definitely not “minimum prices.” Those who never drink, only eat two meals a day, and/or skip most museums or attractions can get by on much less. However, if your style of travel is more minimalistic than this, the order of these cities should still be more or less the same.

Each city name is linked to a page that contains specific prices for many more things, and is converted to US dollars or any other currency you wish on a daily basis.

Also check out Backpacker Indexes from the rest of the world

106 Responses to “56 European cities by price: Europe Backpacker Index for 2015”

Jakori says:

Bulgaria is definetly by far the cheapest country. If you have U.S. currency you will find your money will go far. I traveled to Stara Zagora and found that prices of goods and services to be fairly low.

Boyko says:

It’s not only cheap but there are also many free things to do in Sofia and Bulgaria:

http://freesofiatour.com/blog/free-things-to-do-in-sofia :)

Željka says:

stara vam sestra. a de je Sarajevo, de?!
your mother is your sister. where is Sarajevo, where?!

Turist says:

What about Sarajevo? Cheaper than any of these cities listed…


    I’ll be adding Sarajevo and a few other new cities to the list in the coming weeks. Thanks to everyone for the feedback, and I agree that Sarajevo is among the places that need to be included. -Roger

Boss says:

Yes, please add Sarajevo! Amazing to visit, and certainly in the top 5-6 cheapest…


(Boss, I’ll add it for sure, hopefully next week. Any idea why so many are suggesting Sarajevo this year? -Roger)

Slovenian says:

Hello, you forgot LJUBLJANA, Slovenia, definately cheaper than 3/4 of the above metioned cities!


    Slovenian, you are right. Ljubljana is another one that I’ve been asked to add before so I will do it soon.

    If anyone else has Europe city suggestions please put them here in the comments. I plan to add at least 5 cities next week, with Sarajevo and Ljubljana for sure so far.

      Lukas says:

      you may have heard, kosice in eatern slovakia is this years european cpaital of culture, chepa, eatsrn european with very charming old town and loads of going on this year…check it.

ivana says:

And what about Belgrade? It must be cheaper than Berlin!!

(Yes, you are right Ivana. I shall add Belgrade next week too. Thanks. -Roger)

Miki says:

Helooo!!!Skopje,Macedonia?Or the list only holds cities who payed for this review?Tipical.

(Miki, I’m not sure if enough people visit Skopje to make the list, but I’ll look at it. And why would any city pay to be on this list, especially the most expensive ones? -Roger)

boss85 says:

Yes, please add Sarajevo!! Amazing to visit, and would probably make the top 5-6 cheapest…


boss says:

Sorry for the repeated comment. thought the first one didnt make it..

another suggestion: Eastern europe – Bratislava, western Europe – Antwerp

Amelia says:

I must disagree about Dubrovnik, its one of the two most expensive cities to live in including Hvar therefore you must have been mistaken about that one

(Amelia, what is wrong with the Dubrovnik information? I know that it’s quite expensive compared to Zagreb and I’d like it to be as accurate as possible. -Roger)

Tatjana says:

I don’t know how you didn’t add Belgrade. It is a very big city, bigger than Sofia, and it is on the lists of the most recommended. Your list is from the cheapest to the most expensive town in Europe, I would say. Thank you for this list, anyway, it is useful.

(Tatjana, you are right and I’ll be adding Belgrade along with Sarajevo and a few others next week. Thank you for commenting. -Roger)

Jorge says:

I second Tatjana’s comment about Belgrade. It should be somewhere there, maybe No1 in the current list. (I think it is cheaper than Sofia, at least judging by the prices mentioned here)

(Jorge, I’m definitely adding it soon, and if it’s really that cheap then even better. People are always looking for new and interesting cities where their money goes a long way, so I’m looking forward to researching it and adding it. -Roger)

travelrob says:

I’d add Liverpool,England.Not only are most of the attractions world class, they are free.The other prices are half the cost of the London area.A great location for day trips.It also has one of the best airports for budget airlines in all of Europe.As for hotels,the bargain Tune Hotel has opened up as well as several bargain options.One can easily fly to Manchester England from the States ,followed by a cheap train ride to get there.

Shawna says:

I’m planning a trip to Europe this summer & this article is awesome!! Thanks so much.

(I’m glad you find it useful, Shawna – Roger)

Bombardistan says:

Go to Palanga,Lithuania
Home stay,which means you have your own room for 20 litas night,thats £5,bear in Laukiniu vakaru salunas £1 for 1 litle,and entrance fee is £4- for 24 hour night clun,
Beach is 200meters away.
With $200 per week you live like king+ wonderfull girls

RPCVinChi says:

I served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Ukraine. Kyiv is a really cool city. A bottle of beer from a street vendor or market is like 50 cents. Infrastructure like the subway and busy are really cheap and efficent. Taxi drivers will try to rip you off and cops may try to get money from you one way or another. Good chance to run into Peace Corps volunteers. Most beautiful women in the world. Hate to say it but Russian or Ukrainian is a must.

    Robert says:

    This list is not very accurate, Bucharest is cheap and a good place to visit but it’s definitely not the cheapest city in Europe; other cities in the Balkans like Sofia, Skopjie, Tirana and Sarejovo are all cheaper.
    Your ranking of Dubrovnik is very misleading too, although it’s more expensive than many Balkan cities it’s still cheap, and certainly much cheaper then cities like Moscow, Munich and Milan. In Dubrovnik you can get private apartments for $15 a night.
    Moscow is one of the most expensive cities in the world, how on earth have you ranked it among the cheapest 15 in Europe? The same goes for St Petersburg, to rank these cities as much cheaper than places like Talin and Dubrovnick makes this list very inaccurate.



      Thank you for the feedback, but it seems clear that you didn’t bother to even read how this list was put together before commenting. You’d have saved yourself the trouble if you had. One common mistake that some people make is they read those lists of the “most expensive cities in the world” without understanding that they are created to calculate comparison costs for executives moving from one city to another, with all the luxury amenities included. This list is for hostel beds, public transportation, attractions, food, and drink.

      The list above is a ranking of how much cities cost for backpackers and budget travelers. All the numbers are there to see, so to say that you disagree with the way they add up is to have missed the point. Also, I’m curious how hostels in Dubrovnik can charge twice as much for a bunk than for the apartments you can get, and why hotels charge five times as much? -Roger

manliopaglia says:

Hallo, thank you very much for the job you did!
In my opinion you should put the price for the day-ticket with the public transport because for example in Hamburg 2.80 is the price for 2 tickets but to make a short trip.
There are 3 different tickets depending on the distance you have to make.
So, imho, it would be better to use the day ticket so there won’t be differences.
About a city I think the list misses Vilnius, Lithuania ;)


    manliopaglia, thanks for the comments. I thought about using the price of a Day Ticket for the index, but that might distort things a bit because in many smaller cities you probably won’t use public transportation at all, much less enough times to make a Day Ticket worthwhile. Still, I’ll consider it for the next update because the prices are pretty easy to find.

    And I’ll probably be adding Vilnuis at some point as well, so thanks for mentioning it. -Roger


Excellent, excellent list Roger! Thanks!

Daniel says:

If you go to belgrade, be careful, lots of people there taking advantage of tourists and if you take a cab, be sure its a official one, the pink ones are cheap, i got burned last time i was there, had to pay like 100 us dollars for a cab ride from the airport to city centre. Sarajevo is much better, much more beatiful city to

Toni says:

Hello Roger,

it is very surprising not to see Tirana or any other Albanian city in your list. Albania has been always in the international media focus (latest from Frommer’s) as a budget destination, so please add Tirana and I will be very curious to see your rank again ;-).

Thank you



    Thank you for the comment. Honestly, you are the first to mention Albania after more than two years of this list, but I know it’s quite cheap so I’ll try to add it the next time I update the list. -Roger


Where is the best place to shop low prices ? We were looking at Morroco or Turkey…
Would love to be near beach..

Yeah Right says:

“Miki, I’m not sure if enough people visit Skopje to make the list.”

Well, you said cheapest European cities, so why not include Skopje since it definitely belongs to this list? More people visit Macedonia than Iceland, for example, so…

Minsk, Palermo, Marseille, Nicosia should be considered also.

Others already mentioned Tirana, Ljubljana and Vilnius, so bear them in mind for the next time :)

Michael says:

Bulgaria( burgas town ) is a great cheap costal town prices are still very low Fantastic value for money

yhy says:

I think Vilnius is quite cheap. Cheaper than Lisbon is Porto for sure. In Poland there is also Wrocław- this city looks much betetr than Warsaw- also Gdańsk is often visited by tourists. What’s more…Ljubljana, Split (im sure its cheaper than Dubrovnik). In Spain e.g. Sevilla


    yhy, I agree that there are many cheaper cities in Europe than the ones listed. In fact, the cities I list here are almost all the most expensive in each country, but it’s hard to come up with a title that describes that well. There are a few more to add, like Vilnius for example, which I hope to get to soon.

    As I think I said before, if this list were truly about the cheapest cities in all of Europe, it would be nothing more than a list of villages in Romania and Bulgaria, which isn’t too useful for most people. Still, I appreciate your input and I’ll think about those other cities you mentioned. -Roger

kathe says:

I love Warsaw! :)

Mikael says:

1 beer in Romania(Heineken,0.5l-1.1 euro);1 shaorma-2 euro;1 Coca Cola at 2.5l-1.1 euro;transport with bus cheap,but don’t go with taxi(big prices for strangers,must to negociate with all)…and manny manny romanian b1tches who like boys with luxurious cars and manny money in the pocket!

John says:

So to interconnect between the countries, my guess is rail say from the most northern country on the list to southern what can one expect? At what cost?

evgeni says:

Where is Ljubljana? I really want to see it in the list.

Patrick says:

Chisinau must be the cheapest! :)


    Patrick, Chisinau (where my website programmer lives) is probably cheaper than Bucharest, but there are probably small towns 30km outside of Chisinau that are even cheaper. I might add Chisinau at some point, although it seems to receive very few tourists. Thanks for the comment. -Roger


Did you forget Malta?


    Andreas, there are quite a few countries that aren’t represented. I’m just trying to include all of the ones that backpackers often visit and I’m not sure Malta fits, although I’ll think about adding it. -Roger

Tuula Westra says:

I vacation from the USA 4-5 weeks every year in Helsinki and London, they are not at the cheap end of the list, but are my must vacation spots.

Chris says:

I have just recently (last 2 years) been to all of the places on the list and I really have to disagree with a lot of them. Pretty much anywhere in Spain is cheap, especially outside of Barcelona and Madrid. And Porto, Portugal is cheaper than Lisbon and much more interesting and beautiful. Kind of disappointed in the whole middle part of this list.


    Chris, thanks for your comments and I don’t disagree with your assertion. But to say it again, the list is basically a ranking of the most popular destinations in Europe, which tend to be the largest city in each country. I agree that the smaller cities and towns are generally cheaper. The list shows that Spain is cheaper than France and Sweden, but also that Poland and Bulgaria are cheaper than Spain. I don’t understand what you are disappointed by, but thanks for reading and taking the time for constructive criticism.

Ieva says:

Lithuania should definitely be included in this list as well.

Ilir says:

Actually I visited Ukraine few months ago, and didn’t find Kiev to be that cheap at all. On the contrary, I must say is kinda expensive, yet worth to visit.

Corina says:

“Definitely not the most charming city in Romania” when referring to Bucharest seems rather bitter…not to mention a proof of a rather shallow approach on traveling…or European culture

(Thanks for your thoughts Corina. The point of that comment is that Romania has far more to offer than what you find in the capital. Are you suggesting that Bucharest is Romania’s most charming city? -Roger)

Robitza says:

Budapest is way more expensive…960 HUF for drinks and entertainment…it’s impossible xD you’d need more than 2000 just to enter into a night club :D

(Thanks for that info Robitza. The Backpacker Index is calculated using the price of 3 beers at a cheaper bar as an “entertainment fund” just to compare cities from a low-budget perspective. If nightclub entry were included then every city on the list would look way more expensive. In Budapest I hang out at the ruin pubs that have no entry fee plus live entertainment so I think that’s fair for backpackers. -Roger)

Brian says:

Always surprised to see such lists. I live in Sweden and have done quite some travelling. It all depends on what you expect from a city and how you are going to spend your time. If I look at my own country, Stockholm (expensive according to the list) has discount cards that give you admission to 40+ museums and attractions, public transport and a room + breakfast in a 3-star hotel for about 100 euro. I visited Moscow (cheap according to the list) and paid the same amount of money for a horrific Soviet style hostel type of thing with no running water and prostitutes in the hallway.


    Brian, thanks for this comment. I wasn’t aware of that Sweden Card program that includes hotel discounts and I’ll add that info into my coverage because it looks like a great deal. And I agree that Moscow is a tricky one for lists like this because low-standard hotels are quite expensive while dorm beds in actual high-rated hostels in Moscow are quite cheap (£13 per night in May). So that, combined with cheap public transportation and beers means Moscow looks relatively cheap for backpackers even though it’s a rip-off for most others. -Roger

      JACK says:

      Roger — Enjoy reading your stuff. I’m a U.S. and EU citizen who knows little of Europe except the travel days for business every now and then. But I want to re-locate “there”.

      We’re not flush at the moment and prefer rural that’s not ugly but that’s not too far away from a larger city with decent hospital. We’d like to grow things and have farming skills though that doesn’t have to be our way of earning a living. We have sufficient income to support ourselves.

      I think the farthest “east” I’ve been is Austria. I find Italy, my country, incredibly over regulated which often means unregulated or chaotically regulated. We’ve lived in the Pacific NW which is about Lat 48 and we enjoyed the rain and overcast skies. It’s winters are mediated by the sea, however. We like small craft sailing and we row — as in sculling. So we’d love to live on calm water. We can take cold better than heat.

      Our wants have been reduced to a bakery that bakes from scratch, hospital, university, water. The language barrier makes Ireland/UK a choice but the COL is very high.

      I’m a lawyer and have watched the U.S. devolve into a place I don’t recognize. Due process has all but disappeared. I don’t want to wait to see how the games comes out there. I know the EU has a parliament that his hellbent on taking over and going as federal as the U.S. However, there does seem to be a line in the sand beyond which the nation/states of the EU won’t be pushed.

      The “bargains” seem to be on the old Sov Bloc states — including Slovenia and Croatia.

      I have neither the funds to life left to “check out” everything. Could you choose ten or so that if you knew you’d have to stay put more or less, that is, set up a home, where you’d pick to explore first?

      There are parts of France, Brittany/Normandy that have a large Brit population and might have our real bakery. There are parts of Portugal that have Brits but I don’t know about the bakery. Both of those areas have water for sailing/rowing.

      I’d appreciate any thoughts.



        I’ve spent years trying to find a place like the one you describe, and I’m not sure it exists, at least without a few more sacrifices than we originally expect. The language barrier can be tough to overcome unless you commit to learning the local language even before you arrive.

        I tend to prefer living in a place with an adequate number of English-speaking expats, and with that in mind you might consider Portugal or Spain, including Spain’s islands as possibilities. Anywhere in France is going to be expensive unless you happen to find some dilapidated house in a village where young people are all moving out. And anywhere north of France is going to be expensive as well.

        I lived for almost 5 months in Serbia last year, and it has a lot going for it with a low cost of living and being a pleasant place, but it’s not in the EU, English is spotty, and there are virtually no other expats. Croatia, as you suggest, is probably better in all of those respects so I’d start my search there. Look for Croatia expat forums and find some smaller towns where expats seem to be congregating.

        Right now I’m in Kas, Turkey, and I lived here for 13 months up until last year. It’s lovely, cheap, friendly, and easy enough for English speakers, though it’s not in the EU. In spite of that, getting a Residence Permit is easy, I’m told. Kas is one of many Turkish towns with vibrant expat communities. It’s sunny here about 9 or 10 months of the year, with July and August being quite hot, so not ideal if you prefer overcast skies.

        If you want value for money you should also consider Asia and/or Latin America. Good luck. -Roger

Stephen says:

Still planning on adding Ljubljana?


(Yes, I am. Thank you for reminding me on that one too. -Roger)


Why nobody mentioned Montenegro, inexpensive, great for backpackers, got award at wto in Dubai for Peaks of the Balkans trek. You should consider it!

Al says:

Nobody mentioned Albania,it is the cheapest from all other European country’s, and the most beautiful places to see from the coast (beaches)to the beautiful mountains!


Albania is a great country. Accommodation, food and transport is cheap while people are friendly. We have a quite rich archaeological map, old churches and mosques, castles and museums. If it is nature what you seek, the Albanian riviera offers virgin beaches, crystal clear water and noisy nightlife……

Akif says:

Thanks for the list. I am budget type dude who like cheap destinations.
Oslo at 46 isnt cheap. I am born and raised in Oslo, Norway and still living there. I got good pay but still I cant party everyday or live good life. I have to travel to Sweeden to use my cash.

We have expensive things, food. Not to much too see in Oslo. Not the best Party Town. No beaches. Strickt rules about sex and drugs.
Still we got tourism in summer:)

John says:

Awesome list! Thank you was really helpfull.
And just in case someone has iPhone I’ve been traveling with the App City Dub and it was really helpful also! It’s just focus on backpackers with low budget, and it comes offline.
Great post! Thanks again!

Ryan says:

Albania is far cheaper than the places listed. Put it up or go and visit to see for yourself. Incredible place!


Great list. my daily budget is around 150$ and this list is going to help me a lot.
Thankyou very much

Sarah says:

Definately add Montenegro, the nature is stunning and Kotor is amazing, Podgorica, Herceg Novi, Budva…very cheap!
Sarajevo is one of my favorites.
And whole Spain is amazing too, Barcelona and Madrid are very touristic, but there are so many other cheaper, in my opinion even nicer cities to visit (Sevilla, Granada, San Sebastian, Leon, Zaragoza,…)

Behman says:

Thanks a lot Mr Roger.Its a wonderful list to plane a trip.
I hope you extend your list to other famous cities and add other important material as night club fees.

dzoni says:

the serbian dinar is a free floating currency, not fixed, FYI.

Ryan says:

Hi, I was thinking that it would a good idea to add Porto for the 2014 list or 2015 list (sorry for only commenting now). Keep up the awesome work looking forward to the 2014 list

Jose says:

Hello, I was wondering if you have any articles about what and how to pack when backpacking… and tips on buying a rucksack.

Nivaldo says:

Nice ranking! But i can’t agree that Bratislava is cheaper than Prague. I spent much more money in 3 days in Bratislava than in Prague or even Berlin, especially with meals.

LuX says:

I really think that Bucharest is more expensive than Sofia, I lived in Sofia and have visited Bucharest and I found it so expensive compared to Sofia :D



    Interestingly, Sofia was the cheapest city on the Europe list for the first two years. But the Index is about traveling as a backpacker rather than living there, and Bucharest now has cheaper hostel beds and a few other things. They are still very close to each other in price and on the Index. Also, I think when we live in a city we find all the cheaper and better places to eat and drink and such, while when we visit a city we often wind up in expensive places in the tourist zone. I lived for many years in New York City and I could get by on half of what a tourist does while doing the same things. Thanks for the comment. -Roger

bruno says:

Oporto is way more cheaper than Lisbon, come on! Oporto is the Portuguese city more spoken last year



    I’m sure you are right about that. In fact, the city listed here is almost always the most expensive place in each country. The idea here is to rank the main tourist cities against each other so people can figure out a budget and maybe even find new places to visit. If you really want cheap, you could go to small villages in Moldova that are many times cheaper than Oporto. Thanks for the comment. -Roger

Kate says:

I know you just mentioned in the previous comment that you usually tend to list the most expensive place in each country, but I just wanted to mention something about Lithuania. Although Vilnius is, without a doubt, a beautiful city, there are gems throughout the country that may be much more worthwhile to explore. You may already be familiar with them, but in case you are not, they are: Klaipeda, Palanga, Juodkrante,and Nida. All four are on the Baltic Sea and are quite beautiful and rich in architecture. Juodkrante and Nida are on the Curonian Spit, which stretches from Klaipeda to Kaliningrad, Russia. There are many interesting attractions, so I’m not going to list them, but it is definitely worth looking into if you are interested in historical places, traditions, myths, etc. The best part is that all four are very small and can be covered in a few days, depending on how much you are willing to see and it will probably cost close to nothing. It is not cheap for residents due to much lower wages, but tourists can easily have a very entertaining day for less than 25$.



    Thanks for the comment. I honestly don’t know much about Lithuania beyond Vilnius, though I am going there this summer so I’ll be sure to take your advice and see at least a few of your suggestions. I’ve heard good things in general, so I’m really looking forward to it. -Roger

ina says:

Hmm… Oslo cheaper than Stockholm? pfft Since when? that is not true at all. Norway is the most expensive of the nordic countries.


    Ina, Oslo had been more expensive than Stockholm in previous years, but hostel prices there actually came down a bit while they went up in Stockholm and that accounted for the difference. Public transportation and museums are also more expensive in Stockholm than Oslo, and tourists get hit by those while residents mainly focus on food prices and such. Still, they are close together on the list and on index price, so it’s not like either is a bargain. Thanks for the comment. -Roger

Proximus says:

Oh yes,Lithuania is worth
Palanga is Baltics ibisa
Cheap,wild,parties all night ,main club open 24 hours
Bear £1

There is so many drunk boys,girls foreigners,russians,estonians,germans ,Latvians ,Dutch

Do not book any hotel or hostel
Come into the bus station,and you will be offered rooms for £5-6 thats 20-25 litas
On middle of July bit more.July can be full.

So you will have your own room,in big private houses.
each house has 10-20 rooms
Its cheap,you can eat on meal deal for £2.50-3 ,thats main dish and soup will be named DIENOS PIETUS

I like Palanga in September
Its quite .but not too quite
Its party town.
Sventoji which is 20km north near Latvia border is cheaper and much quiter.
July will be overcrowed
June and August is best,but July will be hot and wild
Many pretty girls.
Main nightclub is Laukiniu Vakaru Salunas

Klaipeda is nice,especialy Curonian Spit
Nida is very expensive
Nida is Lithuanian Dorset
If Palanga is Lithuanian Blackpool,then Nida is Lithuanian Sandbanks

But Nida is super-B
Its like different world
Its like Sachara in the north

Everybody going to Palanga,Nida and Klaipeda on summer
Everybody go near Baltic see.
You will love it

Nightclubs will back you to 1990ies

nico says:

Moscow is one of the most expensive cities in the world.I don’t understand why Moscow is on the list



    Moscow is a large city in Europe, so it’s on the above list of 51 of them ranked by price for backpackers. Zurich, Stockholm, and Oslo also made the list even though they are literally the most expensive cities in Europe.

    The reason Moscow is in the middle rather than near the bottom of the list is that this is about expenses for backpackers and other budget travelers. While many things in Moscow are outrageously expensive, the city actually has cheap hostels, public transportation, and attractions, at least compared to the others. On the 3-Star Traveler Index (updated later this week) Moscow is much farther down the list. -Roger

Tourist information - Lithuania says:

best place to rest in lithuania is city Jonava. a lot of atractions in local bars and local ghetos jards. it is possible to meet the main guy named Tytka in city center. He rules the city and can walk together show everyhting all around and tell local stories. City has a stadium, atractions park, cultural center, 7 schools, railway, buss station, few factories, hospital, police center, shopping mall called “univermagas” and a market with tasty cheap local fast food “cheburekai”, near the entrance to the market you can buy from gipsies cheap cigaretes and maybe something else. Nature: some lakes to swim in the summer or sky in the winter. The main guy of Jonava can help you to count your finances while you will spend your time in this city. Tytka knows everything so the main thing if you pasiing this city just ask locals where to find Tytka. (your daily expenses will be max 20$ a day)

Amit says:

Firstly, a commendable effort.Really found it interesting and valuable info. I am from mumbai, india and plan to travel to europe for my 2nd anniversary. We have a budget of 50,000 INR per person. Can you suggest a gr8 place? We are architects and would prefer old city charm (which most european cities have).I think for beaches thailand and nearby areas is best.we have gone there last year so now want to see europe. Please comment.



    I’m hoping that your budget does not have to include the flights from Mumbai. My recommendation for the 5 cities in Europe that everyone should try to see are London, Paris, Amsterdam, Rome, and Venice. Unfortunately, all of them are quite expensive. Also, staying in just one city tends to be cheaper than going to several cities due to the obvious transportation costs.

    My recommendation for a group of cities that are very interesting, great value, and have noteworthy architecture are Berlin, Prague, Budapest, and Krakow. Berlin isn’t really known for architecture (because it was mostly flattened in WWII), but it’s still very worthwhile and it has a fairly cheap airport. If you bought train tickets in advance, getting between those cities is pretty affordable as well. You could spend about 10 to 12 total days in those 4 countries and probably hit your budget.

    If you let me know where you were hoping to fly into and how long you were hoping to stay, I can try more recommendations. -Roger

Chris Wilson says:

Hey Roger!
Great list as always. I always use a combination of your list and Numbeo’s cost of living comparisons when travelling around Europe. Would you be able to give me a rough estimate of where Ljubljana and Podgorica (or Montenegro in general) would rank in the standings just to give me a rough idea. I would assume they are both in the top 10 or 15. Just curious what you thought. Thanks a lot!



    Always great to hear that people are finding this stuff useful for travel planning. I’ve thought about adding those two cities but I fear that it would do more harm than good if the whole top of the list was dominated by cities people had never heard of and would never consider visiting. But I’ve spent a lot of time in the area (living in Serbia for part of a year) so it interests me. My best guess on Ljubljana is that it’s similar to Bratislava in price because hostels aren’t terribly cheap and the country is mostly surrounded by not-cheap countries.

    However, Podgorica would probably be in the Top 5 cheapest if I put it on the list. My Serbian friends, who make about €1 per hour at their jobs, go to Montenegro for their only holiday of the year. The beach towns might be a bit more expensive, but I think the whole country is quite cheap, partly because so few non-local tourists ever visit. -Roger

darew says:

I am surprised at how many of the comments are gripes about what places should, or should not be included. Give the author a break! Of course a little village in tha arsehole of nowhere is going to be cheaper than the capital city or larger cities???

I think he’s done an amazing summary considering we are talking the whole of europe here, and also he’s talking places where tourists WANT to visit. Surprised nobody has mentioned HOSTEL movie putting people off bratislava! I would NOT be put off personally but I’m sure some others would be.

Must say though I AM surprided that London and Dublin were mentioned. Find them both VERY expensive, but good all round summary and a great guide for backpackers



    Thank you for understanding how much work goes into something like this, and I’m always looking to improve it. I’ve actually tried to include every major tourist-oriented city in Europe, which is why London, Dublin, Oslo, and Stockholm make the list. So it’s not really JUST the cheapest cities in Europe, it’s a list of all the major ones ranked by price from cheapest to most expensive. -Roger


I just found this really nice list and I am really glad for it. I like travel so much. I live in Bratislava, so many cheap cities are close. I am gonna use part of this list on my website (I will give you a credit). Thank you very much

JamesT says:

Just had a look at some of the cities listed and I think the currency needs to be updated. As of 2014 Latvia uses Euros not Lats. Not a big deal but worth knowing. Cheers



    Thanks for this. I actually had already changed over from Lats to Euros, except I forgot to change that text. I’ll fix it now. -Roger

Sally says:

Great list! I live in Munich and my last big trip was Southern Croatia…was wayyyy more expensive than I hoped! They charged €20 just to walk the castle walls in Dubrovnik! So, we are definitely going to be doing a lot more Eastern Europe and will use this list as a guide.

Also, you are right, Portugal is fabulous and while it wasn’t cheap, it was a bargain compared to other places (including Croatia!).

(Thanks for the kind words. And yes, I too have been shocked at how expensive Dubrovnik has become lately. We used to say it was about half the price of Italy, but now they aren’t too far apart. -Roger)

Alice says:

Very useful list!!! I usually use hostels,and am planning an interrail so this list will come handy for some of the plances I don’t already know!

XR says:

Hey! Don’t count Belarus out :) Safe, charming, beautiful and it quite budget friendly too!



    We are adding new cities lately, but there are no plans to add Minsk at this point. For one thing, very few travelers even consider going, and the high fees and complicated visa applications don’t help matters. It seems like Belarus is continuing to cut itself off from mainstream tourism, and until that changes, we probably won’t cover it. Thanks for the idea though. -Roger

evgeni says:

small correction
euro exchange rate in Russia now (November 2014), about 61 rubles, so one day in Moscow will cost you 33 euros, as in Bratislava, and one day in St. Petersburg will cost 22 euros Islands.
so St.Petersburg now – one of the cheapest cities in Europe, as Budapest.

evgeni says:

small correction
euro exchange rate in Russia now (November 2014), about 61 rubles, so one day in Moscow will cost you 33 euros, as in Bratislava, and one day in St. Petersburg will cost 22 euros.
so St.Petersburg now – one of the cheapest cities in Europe, as Budapest.

Carlette says:

Hi Roger, I love this website. While I know it’s not a science, your insight proved helpful in helping me choose a honeymoon location, earlier this year. Do you have any experience/opinion on Capri, Sicily, or the Amalfi coast? How do those areas compare to the cities already listed in Italy? Thanks in advance.



    I was just in Italy again a few weeks ago, and this time I visited Lake Como, Cinque Terre, Siena, Naples, and Sorrento/Amalfi Coast, but I haven’t been to Sicily yet and I skipped a day-trip to Capri. Generally, prices in Italy are fairly similar, except Venice and Rome with high-price hotels, and Naples cheaper than the rest. I was going to go to Sicily on that trip, but I’ve read some mixed things about it and it’s also very out of the way unless you fly in. The trains going there are slow, especially with the ferry crossing.

    Honestly, what I’ve heard about Sicily is that it’s charming and feels different from the rest of Italy, but also that people who’ve been everywhere in Italy tend to put Sicily way down the list of places they recommend. In other words, it seems like the kind of place you visit once you’ve seen most of the rest.

    Capri, as you probably know, is quite small, and most popular as a day-trip from Naples or Sorrento. And the Amalfi Coast is just south of Sorrento, so many people use that as a base to explore the whole area. In fact, Sorrento is now perhaps my favorite city in Italy, at least once you’ve seen all the famous sights. Sorrento is small and tourist-friendly itself so it makes a great base. From there you can spend a day in Naples (fascinating but a bit gritty for an overnight), a day visiting Pompeii, a day visiting Capri, and a day visiting the Amalfi Coast. So you have many days worth of first-class sightseeing, in addition to at least a few days just hanging around in Sorrento. Also, Sorrento is probably the easiest place to visit for someone who doesn’t speak Italian, because nearly everyone seems to speak fluent English. In most of Italy, it can be a struggle except at hotels and restaurants.

    I’m hoping this helps, and I’ll be happy to try again if you have more questions. -Roger

Rafael says:

Hey Roger,
When you will publish the 2015 backpacker index?


Wanjiru T says:

Interesting read,thanks.Please publish an article on 51 cities in Africa too.

Kate says:

thank you SO much for this summary, this is extremely helpful to me planning my backpacking trip for the spring- every city i plan to visit is on this list and now i have an MUCH clearer idea of what my budget needs to be. i was overwhelmed trying to plan my budget out because i plan to be gone for four months- this gives me a solid foundation.

Aaron says:

As always, an amazing list. Just wanted to say thanks for the site, it’s a truly invaluable resource for budget travelers. Keep up the great work, please!

Tim Chatzi says:

Hey man, great post, i just have a little question for you. How come EVERY single city in Europe got more expensive that year? I remember last year Belgrade, Sarajevo and Sofia were around 21-22 euros and now they’re all around 26-27…Also Paris was 66, this year is 72. I still see some minor changes in most cities not worth mentioning. Does Europe gets more and more expensive each year or did something happen with the euro – dollar exchange rate that has changed a lot these days?



    Thanks for the comment and especially for paying such close attention. Actually, many cities went down in price from 2014 to 2015, mostly due to currency shifts. In many other cases it was hostel prices going up in that city.

    However, in this most recent update I also made a great effort to make the daily meal totals more similar to each other in what you eat and drink each day. I personally visited about 20 of these 56 cities late in 2014 and I made some adjustments based on that. Most of the adjustments involved that I had the dinner range starting too low. The point of the Backpacker Index was never to show the minimum that a backpacker could get by with, but more of typical expenses of someone being careful with their money. Part of that is assuming that a visitor will want some form of a sit-down meal each night, even though they could save a bit of money getting fast food or pizza slices.

    So especially for the cheapest cities at the top of the list, I realized that I was budgeting too little for a sit-down dinner. That adjustment added maybe €3 or so to a handful of cities. Also, for the “3 beers” entertainment fund each day, I was often using a price that was the lowest in that city, and in reality, very few backpackers go to the trouble to find the absolute cheapest beer in town. So in many cases I used a more realistic price for the 3 beers, and that bumped a few cities up by €1 or €2 per day. At this point I’m very confident that the city experiences closely match each other and match current reality, so future updates should only reflect inflation and/or currency shifts.

    So in a city like Sofia, you can still find a way to eat dinner for US$3 and you can still find a beer for US$1.30 if you really look around. But I don’t think that’s normal for most travelers, so I wanted to adjust some of these cities to reflect that.

    But again, in quite a few cases it was more a matter of hostels going up in price. I hope this helps and was more or less what you were asking. -Roger

Madison says:

Wade, you are the BESTEST! This list is priceless! OMG! I have changed everything around, also dropped some cities and added more affordable. Thank you! Thank you! Thank you! Thank you! Thank you! You have saved me tons of money. FANTASTIC!

Paloma says:

Thank so much for this information :) I will go 2 mont and I wanna know how much is traveling between cities and wich is the best way to do it.

Oleh says:

I think, LVIV (Ukraine) is has to be in this list. Old and beautiful european city, closer to the rest of Europe, than Kyiv and even more cheaper.


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