While Vienna is grand and important, Salzburg is photogenic and endlessly charming. At the base of the Alps, this is the place to visit in Austria beyond the capital, or perhaps even instead of the capital.
In addition to the gorgeous old town in Salzburg, visitors here tend to focus on Mozart-related sights, and those associated with the Sound of Music movie. The Mozart birthplace and the Mozart resident can be a bit dry, but the Sound of Music bus tour is a blast, even for those who might not know the movie well.
Hotels and hostels in Salzburg offer pretty good value for this region, although they can be crowded and/or sold out during the summer festival season, so booking ahead is critical.
Food and drinks are also good value for this part of Europe, even at some of the more touristy places in the Old Town and nearby. The Augustiner Brewery is a cheap and unforgettable evening for beers and traditional food.